Tag Archives: linguistics

Timothy Powell: Building Relationships: Collaborative Projects Between the APS and Indigenous Communities. (APS Native American Conference)

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This is part of the conference “Building Partnerships Between Archives and Indian Communities,” held at the American Philosophical Society (APS) in Philadelphia, May 2010.

“Building Relationships: Collaborative Projects Between the APS and Indigenous Communities.”
Timothy B. Powell, Director of APS Native American Projects.

“This Mellon grant was initially for preservation. Many of these oral histories are being converted from R-DAT tapes to digital technology at an archival standard. An enormous amount of Native American languages are being digitized.

APS Native American Sound Recordings

Listen to songs, folkloric stories and the last speaker of Wampanoag dialect on the APS Native American Sound Recordings page.

“There’s a bright future with traditions being brought back to life, though we have to discuss protocols. This is a mutually-beneficial relationship. For language teachers, we can give these recordings back to them in digital formats for language preservation and cultural revitalization.

“One teacher told me, ‘When we speak our own language, we think in our own language, which makes that time connect with this time.’ There’s a sense of history, that even though these recordings are from 70 years ago, we can hear them better now and share them more easily and inexpensively.

Group of 10 Creek boys in school uniform, ca. 1880.

Group of 10 Creek boys in school uniform, ca. 1880. / J.N. Choate: APS Speck-Choate Photograph Collection.

“For example, the Mandan language currently has one fluent speaker, but we have recorded 237 hours of it. Access and preservation is more than conversion, because now you can tell the exact data. We also received a Getty grant to review the 110,000 Native American images at APS. Multiple archives should work together, [now] Native People could create their own exhibits.”

Q&A with Timothy Powell and Prof. Robert Miller
-Is there portable scanning equipment?
Powell: The Ojibwe work with the Minnesota Historical Society to digitize materials at a high quality, including Objibwe newspapers. Tribes have taped their own materials, should those go to APS? We do receive APS grant materials, for example Phillips Fund materials are deposited at the APS.

-When was the change from adapting to Native American languages to English-language assimilation?
Miller: English colonial rule was the big factor, I don’t know about French and Spanish rule. In the mid-to-late 1900s, schools still punished students for speaking the Native languages. Now, revitalization of language leads to healing from genocide, which has trans-generational consequences. The Bureau of Indian Affairs eliminated Native languages in 1868, and in 1885 required all communication in English. When materials are given back to tribes, they are given new life.

-What’s the protocol for listening to and obtaining materials?
Powell: Just call us, I can visit the reservations.
Miller: The Native American Advisory Board has established that tribes can have password-protected access, and to ensure respect – you don’t want to have videos pop up on YouTube with wacky music.

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Robert Miller: Preserving American Indian Languages and Cultures. (APS Native American Conference.)

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This part of the conference “Building Partnerships Between Archives and Indian Communities,” held at the American Philosophical Society (APS) in Philadelphia, May 2010.

“Preserving American Indian Languages and Cultures.”
Robert Miller, Prof. of Law at Lewis and Clark School and Chief Justice of the Court of Appeals of the Grand Ronde Tribe.

“This is an historic moment, a chance to truly share materials together to preserve Native languages and cultures.

Robert Miller

Robert Miller. / Lewis and Clark Law School

“But last week, at a lecture in San Antonio someone asked me, ‘Shouldn’t you just join the Melting Pot and become a regular American?’ My answer is: Absolutely not! Native Americans do not want to lose their language and culture, which makes them separate from Americans and the Melting Pot. But many feel like they are living in two worlds – one of speaking English and being American, and the tribal pull.

“Preserving language is absolutely crucial – language is the key to a separate existence and distinct culture. The English language does not reflect the meanings, ways and degrees [in Native languages]. This is not an academic exercise – it’s about keeping the culture alive for the next generation, and the next 1,000 years.

When Columbus stumbled into the Caribbean in 1492, there were 300 Native languages. In 2000, there were 175 alive in 29 states. But of those 175, only 11 percent were still spoken; of those still spoken, 40 percent were only by the grandparents, and 17 percent only by the parents. In 10 years (this year), it was predicted that 75 percent of the languages would be extinct. The remaining languages are in a precarious existence.

Walam Olum: Delaware Indian Pictographs

Ink sketch of Delaware Indian pictographs with English translations, simple signs found in the Linapi (sic) Wallamolum. C.S. Rafinesque, 1833. / APS: C.S. Rafinesque Correspondence and Writings

“For the Navajo, in 1980, 90% of 6-year-olds could speak the language, but in 2000 it dropped to 30%. Did television rob them of their language and culture? On the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, there are 29,000 people but only 5-15% of them are fluent, and of the speakers, 60% are 50 or older. For the Pawnee, in 1965 there were 200 fluent speakers, but the last died in 2006. The loss of language directly leads to the loss of religion, culture and ceremonies.

How did that happen? This was the goal of the English, French and Spanish. Though the first Bible was translated [into Native languages], soon after they taught English to assimilate the Indian people. From 1819-1873, Congress supported the Civilization Fund that provided schools on and off the reservations. These schools took children away from 5-18 years old, punishing them when they spoke their own language. In 1869, the schools required them to practice Christianity, and in 1875 all Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools required all communication to be in English. In 1868, the BIA decreed: ‘Sameness in language leads to sameness in thought and sentiment.’ In 1877, there were 170 BIA schools, while in 1909 there were more than 300. Now there are 85 schools.

Vocabulary of the Unquachog Indians

Thomas Jefferson's manuscript of a vocabulary of the Unquachog Indians, 1791. / APS American Indian Vocabulary Collection

“Thomas Jefferson wanted to prove where the Indian people came from. He collected vocabularies from all of the tribes east of the Mississippi, and told Lewis and Clark to collect vocabulary lists. The vocabularies were unfortunately lost when Jefferson moved to Monticello in 1809. Lewis and Clark also collected a questionnaire of every tribe, including military intelligence. Jefferson was the father of the ‘Removal Era.’ Lewis and Clark found out which tribes would be willing to move west, and also which tribes in the west would accept tribes moving from the east.

“What are the tribes doing? Some are in business development, such as by building casinos. Some languages are being revived, for example Chinook Jargon is being taught, even though it’s a trade language with French, English and Spanish words.

Sioux boys as they arrived at the Indian Training School, Carlisle Barracks, Oct. 5th, 1879

Sioux boys as they arrived at the Indian Training School, Carlisle Barracks, Oct. 5th, 1879. / Frank Speck, APS Speck-Choate Photograph Collection.

“Tribes must teach younger children their language. The Blackfoot’s Piegan Institute practices language immersion, which is the only way to teach, especially for the first five years in a child’s life. Tribal schools have low attendance and high dropout rates. But if they taught the tribal languages in high school, who would be the A student then? It validates the minority people who do not read about themselves in American history textbooks.

“What is the federal government doing today? In 1972, the Indian Education Act supported bilingual education for Indian schools. But 36 states have English-only curricula, and Arizona recently banned ethnic studies programs. In 1990, the Native American Language Act (NALA) said that the United States has a responsibility to act together with Native Americans, and awards special status to Native Americans, including recognizing that separate identity and language are integral to the survival of Indian culture. Student achievement and school pride are tied to the first language of the child. Indian languages should be taught at the elementary, secondary and higher education levels.

Indian boys at the Indian Training School, 1880.

Indian boys (from 16 different tribes) at the Indian Training School, April 20th 1880. / Frank Speck: APS Speck-Choate Photograph Collection.

“Oregon passed a law letting the tribes certify who can teach their language, and that it can’t require any certification or bachelor’s degree. Washington state passed the same in 2007. Since 1992, NALA has awarded only $13 million in 166 grants, only about one-fifth of the $63 million requested. A Senate report showed that this was only policy, and not required by the United States. This shows that the 50 states are not dependable. Tribal people can’t wait another 200 years for U.S. to help them.

Indian students who see themselves in the curriculum helps reduce the dropout rate, just like how a recent Oregonian article showed the same for Latino and African-American students.

“This is an historic opportunity for tribes to work together with the APS. In order for tribes to have separateness and a unique culture, language is the most important aspect.

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Pat McPherson, Introduction; Regna Darnell, Native American Languages as a Core Tradition of the APS (APS Native American Conference)

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This is part of the conference “Building Partnerships Between Archives and Indian Communities,” held at the American Philosophical Society (APS) in Philadelphia, May 2010.

“Introduction.” APS Executive Officer Pat McPherson.
“This language archive is vitally important when many of these languages are in danger of extinction. We are here to celebrate the archive and work together to make it available to Native Americans and scholars.”

“Native American Languages as a Core Tradition of the APS.”
Regna Darnell, Director of the First Nations Studies Program at the University of Western Ontario.

“As the founding director of the First Nation Studies Program, I can tell you that universities are reawakening the protocols of collaborative partnerships. APS is pivotal for the study of Native American languages and to some extent, of Native Peoples.

Thomas Jefferson, Third President of the United States.

Thomas Jefferson, Third President of the United States. He recorded Indian vocabularies. / APS Prints Collection.

“[America’s] Founding Fathers classified the indigenous population as a ‘cabinet of curiosities,’ categorizing them in the natural science field as part of Enlightenment thinking. They also amassed data on the languages of the peoples of America. The Founding Fathers prized something ‘American’ over the Old World, and identified with Native Americans such as by dressing up as them for the Boston Tea Party.

“Early APS Members who were anchored in philosophy did not conduct anthropological fieldwork, though Wilhelm Van Humboldt called for the need to have accurate data numbers on the languages.

“In the book ‘Jefferson and the Indians,’ it tells of Jefferson admiring the freedom of native people living outside of civilization. He thought of the Indians as noble but disappearing, and thus needed records to be available for study of them. Jefferson’s Indian vocabularies was lost in 1809 when he moved to Monticello, but there are remnants at the APS. He recognized the diversity of the Indian languages, and thought that they were the key to the affinity of nations, though he collected mostly Algonquin vocabularies.

	Vocabulary form : List of words, in English, with space for listing the Indian equivalent.

Jefferson's Indian Vocabulary List. List of words, in English, with space for listing the Indian equivalent, 1792. / APS American Indian Vocabulary Collection.

Jefferson’s vision of science is at the core of the APS. Jean Duponceau classified Indian languages on grammar rather than vocabulary, but Jefferson rejected that. But both were mistaken. John Pickering designed a uniform orthography. Albert Gallatin created a map of linguistic groups and a vocabulary. Henry Schoolcraft made Ojibwe narratives. Lewis Cass advised Jefferson on the Lewis and Clark expedition. Daniel Brinton transcribed the Iroquois Bill of Rights, made migration legends and kept Philadelphia on the map for professional anthropology.

“Brinton became the first anthropology professor in the country at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1894 he presented at the World’s Fair, and was the first to include South American languages, drawing the hemisphere into a single fold. Franz Boas, whose base remained in academia, wrote the 1911 “Handbook to American Indian Languages.” Through the 1920s, he developed and catalogued based on fieldwork, demonstrating that each language has its own structure.

“APS kept the manuscripts safely, and now with partnership is establishing communication, respect, collaboration and continuity that lasts across centuries.

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Session 4: Where Do We Go From Here? (APS Native American Conference)

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This is part of the conference “Building Partnerships Between Archives and Indian Communities,” held at the American Philosophical Society (APS) in Philadelphia, May 2010.

Session 4: Where Do We Go From Here?
We live in an historical era in which new possibilities have arisen for collaboration between archives, museums and indigenous communities. Yet, tremendous challenges lie ahead that must be addressed.

This session concerns the issues of technological resources for curatorship in indigenous communities.

“APS is here for preservation and as a repository,” said Martin Levitt, APS Head Librarian, “but we want to give the curatorial function to the tribes, which can be done with digital technology.”

But sometimes that it is not a simple process.

“Access is just as important as preservation,” said Guha Shankar, a folklife specialist at the Library of Congress’ American Folklife Center. “Now that we’ve digitized the collection, what are the community resources for maintaining it?

Portrait of Zuni Children, ca. 1880

Black and white group portrait of Native American (Zuni) children, two girls and two boys, wearing traditional clothing; ca. 1880. Frank Speck/APS.

Shankhar used the example of the Zuni tribe, who wanted to use the recorded language files for cultural and linguistic education. But the Zuni did not have the IT specialists or digital resources to host the files on their own servers, and transporting the materials by CDs or DVDs presented issues of security and long-term preservation, Shankhar said.

Are you prepared to speak the language of the technogeek?” Shankhar asked. “To borrow a phrase from the Rocky Horror Picture Show, ‘Dammit Janet, I’m a folklorist, not a data management specialist!'”

One person who does speak the language of archives and technology is Kimberly Christen, an assistant professor at Washington State University’s Department of Comparative Ethnic Studies.

Christen has developed the Mukurtu Archive for the Warumungu community in Tennant Creek, Northern Territory, Australia, and is currently working on the Plateau People’s Web Portal, a similar online archival project developed with Washington State University and the three Pacific Northwest tribes of the Coeur d’Alene, Umatilla and Yakama. The open-source software could be adapted by any indigenous community.

Plateau Peoples' Web Portal

Plateau Peoples' Web Portal

“We have cultural protocols for viewing and distributing materials, based on the user’s gender, ritual and kinship and if the subject is deceased,” Christen said. The collection is categorized by five themes, and there are fields for both ‘Description’ and ‘Tribal Knowledge.'”

“Both museum and cultural standards can exist side-by-side,” she said. “It’s been 20 years since NAGPRA (Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act) passed, and the looting of national museums didn’t happen. Instead it led to negotiations. In the future, it will take curatorship to recognize the historical injustice to them (Native Americans), for preservation, circulation and repatriation.”

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